Overview of pBR322 Plasmids

pBR322 Plasmids are one of the most widely used cloning vectors in molecular biology. Developed in 1977 by Bolivar and Rodriguez, pBR322 is a circular double-stranded DNA plasmid of approximately 4,361 base pairs. It is utilized in various genetic engineering and molecular cloning experiments due to its well-characterized structure, stability, and versatility.

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pBR322 Plasmids: Technical Insights

  • Structure and Components:
    • Origin of Replication (ori): The pBR322 plasmid contains the ColE1 origin of replication, which allows it to replicate independently within bacterial cells. This origin ensures a moderate copy number of about 15-20 copies per cell.
    • Antibiotic Resistance Genes: pBR322 carries two antibiotic resistance genes:
      • ampR: Provides resistance to ampicillin by producing beta-lactamase, which deactivates the antibiotic.
      • tetR: Provides resistance to tetracycline by encoding a protein that pumps the antibiotic out of the cell.
    • Multiple Cloning Site (MCS): pBR322 features several unique restriction sites for enzymes such as PstI, EcoRI, HindIII, and BamHI. These sites facilitate the insertion of foreign DNA fragments into the plasmid.
  • Applications:
    • Cloning: pBR322 is primarily used as a cloning vector to insert and propagate foreign DNA fragments in bacterial hosts. The plasmid’s multiple cloning sites allow for easy insertion and screening of recombinant DNA.
    • Gene Expression: While not designed for high-level expression, pBR322 can be used to express cloned genes in bacterial systems for functional studies.
    • Mutagenesis: The plasmid can be employed in site-directed mutagenesis experiments to introduce specific mutations into the cloned genes and study their effects on gene function and protein activity.
    • Library Construction: pBR322 is used in the construction of DNA libraries, where large collections of DNA fragments are inserted into the plasmid and maintained within bacterial colonies for screening and analysis.
  • Advantages:
    • Well-Characterized: pBR322 is one of the most thoroughly studied plasmids, with extensive information available on its sequence, structure, and function.
    • Stability: It is known for its stability within host cells, making it reliable for long-term experiments.
    • Selection Markers: The presence of two antibiotic resistance genes allows for easy selection and maintenance of recombinant plasmids in bacterial cultures.
  • Experimental Considerations:
    • Transformation Efficiency: Efficient transformation of host bacteria (usually E. coli) with pBR322 plasmids is essential. Competent cells with high transformation efficiency should be used to maximize the uptake of the plasmid.
    • Antibiotic Selection: Proper antibiotic selection is crucial to ensure that only bacteria containing the plasmid grow. Ampicillin and tetracycline are used to maintain selective pressure.
    • Verification: After cloning, the presence and orientation of the inserted DNA should be verified using techniques such as restriction enzyme digestion, PCR, and sequencing.
AffiPLASMID® pBR322-Tac-tolC-Lac-intI1
CAT# AFG-NVF-075630
Size: 2 μg
276.00 276.0 USD
AffiPLASMID® pBR322 Plasmid
CAT# AFG-NVF-075629
Size: 2 μg
163.90 163.9 USD